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Native American Rhetorical Traditions

An introduction to Native American historical speeches and contemporary debates.

Rhetorical Scholarship

Blee, L. (2007). The 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress: Divergent Narratives, One Event. American Indian Quarterly, 31 (4), 582-612.

The case study of the 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress points to the process of narrativizing experience and underscores how meaning is socially constructed through various cultural frameworks. To the tourist on the expedition, the experience of viewing the Indian Congress was novel because of the imagined bleak future of Indian cultures. To the Indian participants in the congress, the experience would be inspiring because of the imagined possibility of cultural survival and resilience. The narrative of the congress, as posited by the Great Northern Railway (GNR) agents, fits into a larger narrative of colonial conquest over land and people while the American Indians' narratives fit into a larger process of subverting those colonial forces.

Black, J. E. (2009). Memories of the Alabama Creek War, 1813-1814: US Governmental and Native Identities at the Horseshoe Bend National Military Park. American Indian Quarterly, 33(2), 200-229.

In exploring the topic of U.S.-Native memories, this article focuses on the cultural identities represented at the Horseshoe Bend National Military Park (HBNMP), a heritage site that commemorates the Creek War of 1813-14. The analysis reveals that these memories fashion dominant and colonizing hero-villain and civilized-savage identities between the U.S. government and Red Sticks, respectively. Simultaneously, though, the memories rupture Americentric interpretations of the battles and myths, thus allowing space for a resistive indigenist reading of identities.

Black, J. E. (2012). A clash of Native space and institutional place in a local Choctaw-Upper Creek memory site: Decolonizing critiques and scholar-activist interventions. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 36(3), 19-44.

This essay examines a grassroots organization's (Friends of Historic Northport) campaign to preserve a site in west Alabama where a pivotal Choctaw-Upper Creek battle took place in 1785. It argues that institutional agents have maneuvered within colonial contexts and neocolonial ideologies to mute the voices of indigenist-centered preservation efforts, mostly by occluding a key Native-centered narrative that affirms the battle's location.

Bizzaro, R. C. (2004). Shooting our last arrow: Developing a rhetoric of identity for unenrolled American Indians. College English, 67(1), 61-74.

Nearly two and a half million people in U.S. indicate that they are full-blood American Indians whereas only four million designate their radical identity as mixed-blood. The first step in developing rhetoric of mixed-blood people is for indigenous nations themselves to examine and review the hegemonic practices surrounding tribal enrollment

Carroll, B.D., Cressler, A., Belt, T., Reed, J., & Simek, J. F. (2019). Talking stones: Cherokee syllabary in Manitou Cave, Alabama. Antiquity, 93 (368), 519-536.

Inside Manitou Cave in modern Alabama, nineteenth-century Cherokees carried out sacred ceremonies, recording their activities on the walls using Cherokee syllabary, a system invented in nearby Willstown by Cherokee scholar Sequoyah. Through collaboration between modern Cherokee scholars and Euro-American archaeologists, the authors report and interpret the inscriptions in Manitou Cave. These reveal evidence for secluded ceremonial activities at a time of crisis for the Cherokee. Pressures from the surrounding white populations disrupted the Cherokee ancient lifeways, culminating in their forcible relocation in the 1830s along the Trail of Tears.

Endres, D. (2015). American Indian Permission for Mascots: Resistance or Complicity within Rhetorical Colonialism? Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 18(4), 649-690.

Political rhetoric in a democracy is, in at least some sense, educative and constitutive even as it is instrumentally persuasive. For members of ethnic, racial, or cultural groups outside of the dominant culture, the educative processes that underlie policy advocacy require attention to specific cultures, traditions, historical experiences, and group interests. Thus, even though all out‐groups share many common challenges, they all face unique situations as well. This essay explores these rhetorical challenges and some of the strategies designed to meet them through an examination of the political rhetoric of American Indian activists from the 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties through the 1973 siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Particular attention is paid to the question of audience.

Grant, D. M. (2017). Writing" Wakan": The Lakota Pipe as Rhetorical Object. College Composition and Communication, 61-86.

Examining the chanupa, or ceremonial pipe, from a Lakota perspective reveals it as responding to a particular ontology and extends indigenous rhetorics to consider the ontological dimensions of communication through which groups and individuals constellate themselves as beings.

Hunt, D. & Shaun A. Stevenson. (2016): Decolonizing geographies of power: Indigenous digital counter-mapping practices on Turtle Island. Settler Colonial Studies, 372-392.

This paper addresses the decolonizing potential of Indigenous counter-mapping in the context of (what is now called) Canada. After historicizing cartography as a technique of colonial power and situating Indigenous counter-mapping as an assertion of political and intellectual sovereignty, the authors examine the digital map of Amiskwaciwâskahikan (Plains Cree for Edmonton, Alberta) produced by the Pipelines Collective, which overlays Treaty 6 Indigenous maps onto ‘conventional’ maps to denaturalize and challenge colonial renderings of city space. Drawing on the research and insights of Indigenous scholars Jodi Byrd and Mishuana Goeman, the paper considers how emerging digital counter-mapping efforts offer ambivalent possibilities for Indigenous peoples to assert their presence in material ways.

Katanski, A.V. (2017). Stories that Nourish: Minnesota Anishinaabe Wild Rice Narratives. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 41 (3), 71–91.

Anishinaabe manoomin (wild rice) narratives maintain core aspects of Anishinaabe identity and epistemology, constituting Anishinaabe gikendaasowin (knowledge). These narratives describe the close historical, spiritual, ecological, and material relationships between Anishinaabe communities and manoomin and demonstrate the importance to Anishinaabe self-determination of maintaining such connection.

Loftin, J. D., & B. E. Frey. (2019). Eastern Cherokee Creation and Subsistence Narratives: A Cherokee and Religious Interpretation. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 43 (1), 83–98.

Eastern Cherokees' mythic and legendary worldview, as refracted through sacred myth narratives, forms a living tradition which grounds their identity. In particular, the central sacred stories of their world—the Creation Myth, Kanati the Hunter, Selu the Corn Goddess, and Stone Coat—embody spiritual meanings, purposes, and values which actually orient the Eastern Cherokee lifeway. This essay explores this Eastern Cherokee mythic epistemology.

Morris, R. & P. Wander (1990) Native American rhetoric: Dancing in the shadows of the ghost dance. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 76(2), 164-191.

This essay argues that understanding the rhetorical efforts of Native Americans to create an ethos capable of transcending cultural differences as a means of overcoming the imposition of a fundamentally mistaken identity and revitalizing tribal cultures has significant implications for our understanding of Native American rhetoric. On a broader scale, such study of Native American rhetoric can enhance our knowledge of how rhetoric functions externally and internally for marginalized people.

Powell, M. (2002). Rhetorics of Survivance: How American Indians Use Writing. College Composition and Communication, 53 (3), 396-434.

In this essay, the author listens closely to the ways in which two late nineteenth-century American Indian intellectuals, Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins and Charles Alexander Eastman, use the discourses about Indian-ness that circulated during that time period in order to both respond to that discourse and to reimagine what it could mean to be Indian. This use is a critical component of rhetorics of survivance.

Rich, E. (2004). "Remember Wounded Knee": AIM's use of metonymy in 21st century protest. College Literature, 70-91.

The article examines the American Indian Movement's call to remember the 1890 Big Foot massacre as a rhetorical move that produces a complex, multilayered palimpsest, as various incarnations of the words Wounded Knee function to define the course of protest for the American Indian Movement. The article further traces the meaning of Wounded Knee as a pan-tribal generation of American Indian people attempt to recover an indigenous past and put it to work, defining the future.

Rule, E. (2018). The Chickasaw Press: A Source of Power and Pride. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 42 (3), 183–202.

Established in 2006, the Chickasaw Press is the first tribally owned and operated publishing house in the United States. This article recounts the history of this innovative Indigenous enterprise, explores its decolonized practices and publications, and connects the press to national initiatives for American Indian cultural revitalization. It reveals how the press serves as an active agent in the movement for Indigenous cultural and intellectual sovereignty and showcases how this outlet brings together traditional knowledge and cutting-edge technologies to decenter colonial narratives about the Chickasaw people.

Yi, I. 2016. Cartographies of the Voice: Storying the Land as Survivance in Native American Oral Traditions. Humanities (Basel), 5 (3), p.62+

This article examines how Native places are made, named, and reconstructed after colonization through storytelling. As seen in the oral traditions and written literature of Native American storytellers and authors, the voices of indigenous people retrace and remap cartographies for the land after colonization through storytelling. The article examines manifestations of the oral tradition in multiple forms, including poetry, interviews, fiction, photography, and film, to demonstrate that the land itself, through storytelling, becomes a repository of the oral tradition. The article investigates oral narratives from precontact and postcolonial time periods in stories from the Mayan Popol Vuh; Algonkian; Western Apache; Hopi; Haudenosaunee/Iroquois; and Laguna Pueblo stories; and the contemporary poetry and fiction of Joy Harjo (Mvskoke/Creek Nation) and Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo).

ACTIVISM & PROTEST RHETORIC

Lake, R. (1983). “Enacting Red Power: The Consummatory Function in Native American Protest Rhetoric.”Quarterly Journal of Speech 69:127142.

The essay analyzes the American Indian Movement (AIM) with respect to (1) the role of tradition in AIM demands; (2) militant Indian rhetoric as a form of ritual self-address; (3) how Indian religious/cultural beliefs restrict the ability of language to persuade Whites; and (4) how militant Indian rhetoric fulfills its function.

Lake, R. A. (1991). Between myth and history: Enacting time in Native American protest rhetoric. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77(2), 123-151.

The rhetorical effort to create a shared time can divide groups as much as unify them. For example, temporal framing plays a vital part in efforts by dominant groups to marginalize others and by the marginalized to escape this fate. Both Euramerican and Native American activist discourses construct a history of Native/Euroamerican relations, construe the relevance of this past to current conditions, and predict their ultimate triumph, but differently. The activist narrative, which enacts a “sacred” time through religious ritual, is particularly significant because it subverts not only the Euramerican narrative but also many common sense notions of the nature of time itself; thus extending the consummatory dimension of Native American protest rhetoric.

Lambert, V. (2007). Political Protest, Conflict, and Tribal Nationalism: The Oklahoma Choctaws and the Termination Crisis of 1959-1970. American Indian Quarterly, 31 (2): 283-309.

The author suggests that this Choctaw strategy was fueled by goals other than political assimilation and that the mid-twentieth-century Choctaws saw no contradiction between pursuing white acculturation and being against political assimilation.

Privott, M. (2019). An Ethos of Responsibility and Indigenous Women Water Protectors in the #NoDAPL Movement. American Indian Quarterly, 43(1), 74–100.

This work builds upon Elizabeth Archuleta's (Yaqui) term "ethos of responsibility" by contextualizing it within the #NoDAPL movement. This study attempts to understand the rhetoric of Indigenous women water protectors through the lens of Indigenous feminism(s), Indigenous rhetoric(s), and Dakota/ Lakota/Nakota history and worldviews. The water protectors featured in this study locate agency in traditional teachings and in the experience of Indigenous women, including responsive care in/to the interconnectedness of life, the special role of women in the care of water, and the collective survival of Indigenous women in colonial and patriarchal violence.

McCue-Enser, M. (2017). Ada Deer and the Menominee restoration: rethinking Native American protest rhetoric. Argumentation and Advocacy 53(1), 59-76.

Using Ada Deer’s statements at the congressional hearings on restoration, this essay argues that Deer inverts the ideals of liberal democracy from being an argument that compelled termination to one that justifies restoration by focusing on the right to self-determination and equality. In closing, it argues for a reevaluation of the cultural ideologies brought to bear the scope and study of Native American protest rhetoric.

Smith, C. (2019). Ironic confrontation as a mode of resistance: The Homeland Security T-shirt at the Dakota access pipeline protests. American Indian Quarterly, 43(3), 339-364.

In August 2016 Standing Rock Sioux activists began to protest the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline; by the end of the year, thousands of Native and non-Native activists had joined Sioux tribal members to create one of the largest and most sustained protests in recent memory. Throughout the many images that circulated from Standing Rock, a constant form of embodied rhetoric used by activists was the graphic T-shirt. One of these tees, the Homeland Security shirt, has the words "Homeland Security" emblazoned above an image of Geronimo with three fellow Apache warriors and the words "Fighting Terrorism since 1492" located below the photograph. The Homeland Security shirt is a site of understanding the way irony and confrontation—specifically, a wearable, visual form of rhetoric—may be used as a form of critique and resistance. Through a textual analysis of the T-shirt and the discourse surrounding it, this essay demonstrates how the shirt ironically appropriates the dominant discourse and critiques the status quo using a confrontational tone.

 

DIPLOMACY & POLITICS

Kelly, C. R. (2010). Orwellian language and the politics of tribal termination (1953–1960). Western Journal of Communication, 74(4), 351-371.

From 1953 to 1960, the federal government terminated sovereign recognition for 109 American Indian nations. Termination was a haphazard policy of assimilation that had disastrous consequences for Indian land and culture. Nonetheless, termination cloaked latent motivations for Indian land within individual rights rhetoric that was at odds with Indian sovereignty. Termination highlights the rhetorical features of social control under capitalism portrayed in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), in which opposing principles are fused and inverted. This essay critiques termination's Orwellian language to show how ideographs of social liberation are refashioned by the state to subvert Indian sovereignty and popular dissent.

Strickland, W. M. (1982) The rhetoric of removal and the trail of tears: Cherokee speaking against Jackson's Indian removal policy, 1828–1832. Southern Journal of Communication, 47(3), 292-309.

The author examines Cherokee rhetorical efforts to prevent the forced removal of Cherokees from their native lands east of the Mississippi, a removal which later became known as “The Trail of Tears.” The essay analyzes rhetorical strategies employed by Cherokee speakers and advances conclusions relative to why these strategies failed.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Endres, D. (2009). The Rhetoric of Nuclear Colonialism: Rhetorical Exclusion of American Indian Arguments in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Siting Decision. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6(1), 39-60.

Nuclear colonialism is a system of domination through which governments and corporations disproportionately target and devastate indigenous peoples and their lands to maintain the nuclear production process. Expanding previous studies of nuclear colonialism, this essay argues that nuclear colonialism is significantly a rhetorical phenomenon that builds upon the discourses of colonialism and nuclearism and rhetorically excludes American Indians and their opposition to it through particular rhetorical strategies.

Johnson, T. N. (2018). “The most bombed nation on Earth”: Western Shoshone resistance to the Nevada National Security Site. Atlantic Journal of Communication 26(4): 224-239.

This article explores a set of protests challenging U.S. occupation of the Nevada Nuclear Test Site as a means of understanding the deployment of bordering rhetorics in colonial expansion and indigenous resistance. The article analyzes the verbal, visual, and performative elements of these protests and argues that indigenous citizenship and border protests can co-opt and re-appropriate traditionally hegemonic rhetorics as a means of challenging naturalized assumptions about nationhood, borders, and sovereignty.

 

WOMEN & GENDER ISSUES

Prindeville, D. M., and T. B. Gomez. (1999). American Indian Women Leaders, Public Policy, and the Importance of Gender and Ethnic Identity. Women and Politics 20(2), 1732.

American Indian women are playing an increasingly important role as policymakers in state, local, and tribal politics. Despite their activity and impact, however, few studies examine their political agendas or public policy preferences. What are the public policy agendas of American Indian women leaders? What do they wish to accomplish? What motivates them? Does their gender and/or ethnic identity have an influence on their political participation? To answer these questions, the authors interviewed Indian women in elected or appointed positions in state, local, and tribal government in New Mexico. They find that both gender and ethnic identity are significant influences for Indian women holding public office in New Mexico.

Roberts, K. (2002). Speech, Gender, and the Performance of Culture: Native American “Princesses.” Text and Performance Quarterly, 22(4), 261-279.

Communication scholars have fared well in their pursuit of feminist theory, especially as it applies to women in mass media and public culture. Conspicuously absent, however, are studies of local rituals such as community beauty contests. The issues surrounding portrayals of women in the mass media are intensified in community beauty pageants, where the authors are not nameless, faceless producers of media, but local individuals and contestants. This essay examines the "life-cycle" of a princess in the Native American festival of powwow.

Wieskamp, V. N., & Smith, C. (2020). “What to do when you’re raped”: Indigenous women critiquing and coping through a rhetoric of survivance. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 106(1), 72-94.

Native women and girls suffer sexual violence at the highest rate of any demographic in the United States—primarily perpetrated by non-Native assailants. This essay explores how dominant Euro-American discourses regarding trauma, sexual violence, and indigenous peoples complicate this epidemic. These discourses individualize trauma, assign it an unrealistic linear timeline, and ignore the experiences of women of color. Such rhetoric renders Native bodies as disposable and disguises structural oppression by blaming women for the sexual violence committed against them. Ultimately, we argue that rhetoric of survivance creates a space in which communities disproportionately affected by violence can simultaneously practice collective coping methods while also challenging dominant discourses.

 

LEGAL RHETORIC

Hendrix, B. (2005). Memory in Native American Land Claims. Political Theory, 33(6), 763-785.

While claims for the return of expropriated land by Native Americans and other indigenous peoples are often evaluated using legal frameworks, such approaches fail to engage the fundamental moral questions involved. This essay outlines three justifications for Native Americans to pursue land claims: to regain properties where original ownership has not been superseded, to aid the long-term survival of their endangered cultures, and to challenge and revise the historical misremembering of mainstream American society. The essay argues that Native Americans are justified in strategically pursuing land claims that are difficult to justify on other grounds, and closes with some worries about the legitimate role of strategy in political action.

Wallace, A. (2014). Patriotic Racism: An Investigation into Judicial Rhetoric and the Continued Legal Divestiture of Native American Rights. DePaul Journal for Social Justice, 8(1), 91–145.

"This paper seeks to make evident how legal rhetoric in discussions of Native American rights is ‘extraordinarily negative, focusing mainly on the threat posed by recognizing such rights.’ Such rhetoric resists challenges posed to traditional values, beliefs, and prevailing customs, while sustaining a vested interest in building upon precedent established by centuries of Federal Indian Law. This unintentional administration of racism has become an unconscious practice that continues to create a real-life impact on Native American culture, with real-life consequences."

 

MASCOTS

Endres, D. (2015). American Indian Permission for Mascots: Resistance or Complicity within Rhetorical Colonialism? Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 18(4), 649-690.

Political rhetoric in a democracy is, in at least some sense, educative and constitutive even as it is instrumentally persuasive. For members of ethnic, racial, or cultural groups outside of the dominant culture, the educative processes that underlie policy advocacy require attention to specific cultures, traditions, historical experiences, and group interests. Thus, even though all out‐groups share many common challenges, they all face unique situations as well. This essay explores these rhetorical challenges and some of the strategies designed to meet them through an examination of the political rhetoric of American Indian activists from the 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties through the 1973 siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Particular attention is paid to the question of audience.

 

VISUAL RHETORIC

Bohaker, H. (2010). Reading Anishinaabe Identities: Meaning and Metaphor in Nindoodem Pictographs. Ethnohistory 57(1): 11–33.

Anishinaabe peoples of the Great Lakes region consistently signed treaties, petitions, and other paper documents from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries with pictographic representations of their nindoodem (clan) identities. Close study of these pictographs reveals a wealth of information about Anishinaabe cultural and political priorities, their struggles to maintain control of land in specific locations, and their extensive ecological knowledge, opening rich interpretative doors for future research.

Lucchesi, A. (2018). “Indians Don't Make Maps”: Indigenous Cartographic Traditions and Innovations. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 42 (3): 11–26.

This paper highlights the works created by Indigenous cartographers throughout history and reflects on the ways in which they engage ideas of space, nation, territory, and relationships to land, as well as resist colonial occupation and epistemologies. It also asserts the technological and theoretical interventions Indigenous cartographers have contributed, and continue to contribute, to the fields of cartography and geography. Lastly, it argues that cartographic training in Indigenous communities is necessary as much as efforts to strengthen tribal sovereignty and mobilize towards restorative justice.

Roppolo, K. (2007). Vision, Voice, and Intertribal Metanarrative: The American Indian Visual-Rhetorical Tradition and Leslie Maron Silko’s “Almanac of the Dead.” American Indian Auarterly, 31 (4), 534-558.

The author approaches Native American speech tradition focusing on a certain tendency to engage in visual thinking and the need to communicate with others who might not speak the same language or who share situations in which speech was either inappropriate or dangerous. The author provides a few examples of how some visual rhetorics have evolved over the years and shows their continuing importance in Native American life and literature.

Explanatory Note:

This page lists further readings on select Native American speakers.

The list is organized alphabetically by the speaker (last names for English-style names, e.g. William Apess and first components of indigenous names, e,g, Crazy Horse).

The selection is not meant to be either comprehensive or representative and is intended to encourage further explorations of specific rhetorical events, speeches, and Native American rhetorical strategies.

 

 

WILLIAM APESS

Benn, C. (2014) Native Memoirs from the War of 1812: Black Hawk and William Apess. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bizzell, P. (2007). William Apess, Eulogy on King Philip (26 JANUARY 1836). Voices of Democracy 2, 79‐98. https://voicesofdemocracy.umd.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/bizzell-apess.pdf

Gura, P. F. (2015). Son of the Forest: William Apess and the Fight for Indigenous Rights. New England Review 35 (4): 72-81.

Gura, P. F. (2015). The Life of William Apess, Pequot. University of North Carolina Press.

Haynes, C. (1996). "A Mark for Them All to... Hiss at": The Formation of Methodist and Pequot Identity in the Conversion Narrative of William Apess. Early American Literature 31(1), 25-44.

Lopenzina, D. (2010). What to the American Indian Is the Fourth of July? Moving beyond Abolitionist Rhetoric in William Apess's Eulogy on King Philip. American Literature 82(4), 673-699.

Lopenzina, D. (2018). Through an Indian's Looking-Glass: A Cultural Biography of William Apess, Pequot. University of Massachusetts Press.

Wolfe, E. A. (2008). Mourning, Melancholia, and Rhetorical Sovereignty in William Apess's Eulogy on King Philip. Studies in American Indian Literatures 20(4), 1-23.

Zuba, C. (2017). Apess’s Eulogy on King Philip and the Politics of Native Visualcy. Early American Literature 52(3), 651-677. 

Zuck, R. R. (2013). William Apess, the “Lost Tribes,” and Indigenous Survivance. Studies in American Indian Literatures 25(1), 1-26.

 

DENNIS BANKS

Banks, D. (2011). Ojibwa Warrior: Dennis Banks and the Rise of the American.

 

BIG EAGLE

Hasian, Jr, M. (2003). Cultural amnesia and legal rhetoric: Remembering the 1862 United States-Dakota war and the need for military commissions. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 27(1), 91-117.

 

BLACK HAWK

Brown, ‎N., & Kanouse, S. (2015). Re-Collecting Black Hawk: Landscape, Memory, and Power in the American Midwest

Trask, K. (2013). Black Hawk: The Battle for the Heart of America

Jung. P. (2008). The Black Hawk War of 1832.

 

RUTH MUSKRAT BRONSON

Bernardin, S. (2017). Alternate Origin Stories and Unexpected Archives: The Question of the Indigenous Literary. Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers 34(1), 212-220.

Cavanaugh, A. (2020). Re-membering Cherokee Justice in Ruth Muskrat Bronson's “The Serpent”. American Indian Quarterly 44(1), 36-58.

 

CHIEF COCHISE

Aleshire, P. (2001). Cochise: The Life and Times of the Great Apache Chief. New York: Wiley.

Hocking, D. (2018). The Black Legend: George Bascom, Cochise, and the Start of the Apache Wars. Rowman & Littlefield.

Roberts, D. (2011). Once They Moved Like the Wind: Cochise, Geronimo. New York: Simon & Schuster

Sweeney, E. (2012). Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press

Sweeney, E. R. (2012). From Cochise to Geronimo: The Chiricahua Apaches, 1874-1886. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Sweeney, E.R. (Ed.). (1997). Making peace with Cochise: The 1872 journal of Captain Joseph Alton Sladen. Norman, Okla. : University of Oklahoma Press.

 

CRAZY HORSE

Ambrose, S. (1975). Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors. New York, NY: Random House Inc.

Bray, K. M. (2014). Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life. University of Oklahoma Press.

Clark, R.A. (2018). The Killing of Chief Crazy Horse

Marshall III, J. (2004). The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History. New York, NY: Penguin.

McGaa, ‎E., Elliott, D., & ‎P. Cosgrove. (2009). Crazy Horse and Chief Red Cloud: Warrior Chiefs. Four Directions.

Newton, N. J. (1994). Memory and Misrepresentation: Representing Crazy Horse. Connecticut Law Review, 27, 1003.

Powers. T. (2011). The Killing of Crazy Horse

 

SARAH WINNEMUCCA HOPKINS

Carpenter, C. M. (2002). Tiresias Speaks: Sarah Winnemucca's Hybrid Selves and Genres. Legacy 19 (1), 71-80.

Carpenter, C. M. (2016). Sarah Winnemucca Goes to Washington: Rhetoric and Resistance in the Capital City. American Indian Quarterly 40 (2), 87-108.

Dolan, K. C. (2020). Cattle and Sovereignty in the Work of Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins. American Indian Quarterly 44(1), 86-114.

Hopkins, S. W. (2015). The Newspaper Warrior: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins's Campaign for American Indian Rights, 1864-1891. University of Nebraska Press.

Lape, N. G. (1998). I Would Rather Be with My People, but Not to Live with Them as They Live": Cultural Liminality and Double Consciousness in Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins's" Life among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. American Indian Quarterly 22(3), 259-279.

Lukens, M. (1998). Her" Wrongs and Claims": Sarah Winnemucca's Strategic Narratives of Abuse. Wicazo Sa Review, 93–108.

McClure, A. S. (1999). Sarah Winnemucca: [Post]Indian Princess and Voice of the Paiutes. Melus 24 (2), 29-51.

Ray, D. K. (2012). Paiute Princess: The Story of Sarah Winnemucca. New York : Frances Foster Books/Farrar Straus Giroux

Scherer, J. (1988). The public faces of Sarah Winnemucca. Cultural Anthropology 3(2), 178–204.

Scholten, P. (1977). Exploitation of ethos: Sarah Winnemucca and Bright Eyes on the Lecture Tour. Western Journal of Speech Communication 41(4), 233-244.

Sorisio, C. (2017). "I Nailed Those Lies": Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins, Print Culture, and Collaboration. J19: The Journal of Nineteenth-Century Americanists 5(1), 79-106.

Tisinger, D. (2002). Textual Performance and the Western Frontier: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins's Life among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. Western American Literature 37(2), 171-195.

 

CHIEF JOSEPH

Biskup, A. (2011). Thunder Rolling Down the Mountain: The Story of Chief Joseph

Guthrie, T. H. (2007). Good words: Chief Joseph and the production of Indian speech (es), texts, and subjects. Ethnohistory 54(3), 509-546.

Howard, H.A. (2017). Saga of Chief Joseph.

Nerburn, K. (2009). Chief Joseph & the Flight of the Nez Perce: The Untold Story.

Sharfstein, D. J. (2017). Thunder in the Mountains: Chief Joseph, Oliver Otis Howard, and the Nez Perce War. WW Norton & Company.

 

KICKING BEAR

Black, J. E. (2008). Kicking Bear, "ADDRESS AT THE COUNCIL MEETING OF THE HUNKPAPA SIOUX, GREAT SIOUX RESERVATION" (9 October 1890). Voices of Democracy 3: 34‐49.

 

CHIEF LOGAN

Golden, J. M., & Golden, J. L. (1999). Logan’s speech: A social semiotic perspective on a rhetorically significant text. Semiotica 126(1-4), 75-96.

O'Donnell III, J. H. (1979). Logan's oration: A case study in ethnographic authentication. Quarterly Journal of Speech 65(2), 150-156.

Seeber, E. D. (1947). Critical Views on Logan's Speech. The Journal of American Folklore 60(236), 130-146.

 

WILMA MANKILLER

King, J. L. (1990). Justificatory rhetoric for a female political candidate: A case study of Wilma Mankiller. Women's Studies in Communication 13(2), 21-38.

Dell, P. J. (2006). Wilma Mankiller: Chief of the Cherokee Nation.

Mankiller, W. & Wallis, M. (2019). Mankiller: A Chief and Her People.

 

RUSSELL MEANS

Stripes, J. (1999). A Strategy of Resistance: The" Actorvism" of Russell Means from Plymouth Rock to the Disney Studios. Wicazo Sa Review 14(1), 87-101.

Harris, D., & A. R. Carser. (2019). Dennis Banks and Russell Means: Native American Activists. Abdo Publishing

Means, ‎R., Marvin Wolf, M., & Lynch, D. (1995). Where White Men Fear to Tread: The Autobiography of Russell.

 

CARLOS MONTEZUMA

McDonnell, J. (1981). Carlos Montezuma's crusade against the Indian Bureau. The Journal of Arizona History, 22(4). 429-444.

 

SAMSON OCCOM

Bayers, P. L. (2014). “We unman ourselves”: Colonial and Mohegan Manhood in the Writings of Samson Occom. Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 39(1), 173-191.

Dyck, R. (2012). The Economic Education of Samson Occom. Studies in American Indian Literatures 24(3), 3-25.

Elliott, M. (1994). " This Indian Bait": Samson Occom and the Voice of Liminality. Early American Literature 29(3), 233-253.

Lopenzina, D. (2006). " The Whole Wilderness Shall Blossom as the Rose": Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, and the Question of Native Settlement on Cooper's Frontier. American Quarterly 58(4), 1119-1145.

Schweitzer, I. (2017). Samson Occom and the Brotherton Indians. Oxford University Press.

Wisecup, K. (2012). Medicine, communication, and authority in Samson Occom's Herbal. Early American Studies, 540-565.

 

LEONARD PELTIER

Matthiessen, P. (1992). In the Spirit of Crazy Horse: The Story of Leonard Peltier.

Peltier, L. (2016). Prison Writings: My Life Is My Sun Dance.

Endres, D. (2011). "American Indian activism and audience: Rhetorical analysis of Leonard Peltier's response to denial of clemency." Communication Reports 24(1): 1-11.

Meister, M., & Burnett, A. (2004). Rhetorical exclusion in the trial of Leonard Peltier. American Indian Quarterly 719-742.

Sanchez, J., Stuckey, M. E., & Morris, R. (1999). Rhetorical exclusion: The government's case against American Indian activists, AIM, and Leonard Peltier. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 23(2), 27-52.

 

CHIEF PONTIAC

Editors, Ch (2017). Pontiac: The Life and Legacy of the Famous Native American Chief.

Parkman, F. (1915). The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada.

 

CHIEF POWHATAN

Gleach, F. W. (2000). Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures. U of Nebraska Press.

Hantman, J. L. (1990). Between Powhatan and Quirank: Reconstructing Monacan culture and history in the context of Jamestown. American Anthropologist, 92(3), 676-690.

Neuhaus, M. (2013). Indigenous Rhetorics and Kinship: Towards a Rhetoric of Relational Word Bundles. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 33(1), 125.

Rountree, H. C. (2006). Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. University of Virginia Press.

 

RED EAGLE

Allen, C. (1996). Hero with Two Faces: The Lone Ranger as Treaty Discourse. American Literature 68(3), 609-638.

Bailey, T. (2009). Red Eagle: Legendary Creek Warrior. Seacoast Publishing

Cromer, J., Knighton, A., Hortman, J., & D. Lopena. (2018). Red Eagle: The Red Stick War of Alabama.

Goble, P. (2015). Red Cloud's War: Brave Eagle's Account of the Fetterman Fight.Wisdom Tales

 

RED JACKET

Granville, G. (2007). Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue. American Indian Quarterly 31 (4): 559-581.

Granville, G. (2009). “Make Your Minds Perfectly Easy”: Sagoyewatha and the Great Law of the Haudenosaunee. Early American literature 44 (1), 121-146.

 

JOHN ROSS

Conser, W. H. (1978). John Ross and the Cherokee Resistance Campaign, 1833-1838. The Journal of Southern History 44(2), 191-212.

Inskeep, S. (2015). Jacksonland: President Andrew Jackson, Cherokee Chief John Ross, and a Great American Land Grab. New York : Penguin Press.

 

CHIEF SEATTLE

Bierwert, C. (1998). Remembering Chief Seattle: Reversing Cultural Studies of a Vanishing Native American. American Indian Quarterly, 22 (3), 280-304.

Black, J. E. (2012). Native authenticity, rhetorical circulation, and neocolonial decay: The case of Chief Seattle's controversial speech. Rhetoric & Public Affairs 15(4), 635-645.

Buerge, D. (2017). Chief Seattle and the Town That Took His Name: The Change of Worlds for the Native People and Settlers on Puget Sound.Sasquatch Books.

Furtwangler, A. (2011). Answering Chief Seattle. Seattle: University of Washington Press

Gifford, E. (2015). The Many Speeches of Chief Seattle (Seathl): The Manipulation of the Record on Behalf of Religious, Political and Environmental Causes.

Krupat, A. (2011). Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited. American Indian Quarterly 35(2), 192-214.

 

SITTING BULL

Nelson, S. D. (2015). Sitting Bull: Lakota Warrior and Defender of His People.

Vestal, S. (2014). Sitting Bull: Champion of the Sioux

Pope, D. (2010). Sitting Bull, Prisoner of Warbooks.

 

STANDING BEAR

Hutchison, C. (2020). Standing Bear and the Ponca: A Forgotten Legacy. International Social Science Review 96 (1).

 

TECUMSEH

Cozzens, P. (2020). Tecumseh and the Prophet: The Shawnee Brothers Who Defied a Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Schrade, B. J. (1976). Tecumseh: His Rhetoric and Oratory.

Yagelski, R. (1995) A rhetoric of contact: Tecumseh and the native American confederacy. Rhetoric Review 14(1), 64-77.

Sayre, G. M. (2006). The Indian Chief as Tragic Hero: Native Resistance and the Literatures of America, from Moctezuma to Tecumseh. University of North Carolina Press.

 

CLYDE WARRIOR

McKenzie-Jones, P. (2010). “We are among the poor, the powerless, the inexperienced and the inarticulate”: Clyde Warrior’s Campaign for a “Greater Indian America”. The American Indian Quarterly 34(2), 224-257.